Contemporary management approaches is an asymmetric, dynamic, social process that has to be applied according to the particular needs of time, place and person connected with it, for effective and efficient realization of the set goals and objectives.
Contemporary Management Approaches
Any management process and its style may be considered to be composed of two different structures-rational and human. The rational structure provides support for clear and adequate authority-responsibility parity for individual decision making as quickly as needed.
The human structure provides support for holistic concern for the organization and all its human resources. The relative strength and coverage of these two structures are dictated by the sociocultural setting of the country and of organization, or by the place, people and period of time.
The relative strength and coverage of rational and human structures of any management process are dictated by the situation.
Depending on the existing sociocultural setting of a country and the place, people and period of time, a particular management style will be appropriate if and when its practitioners can integrate, rather than super –impose, its two basic elements, namely the rational and the human structures, according to the requirements of its people, its business and organizational environment, prevailing during the period.
Most of the-managers continue to strive towards improved effectiveness.
In the recent years new issues and challenges in the field of management theory and practice have emerged. Now new paradigm has been formulate4d that replaces the traditional views, but most of the managers continue to strive toward a better understanding of how they can better compete and lead their organizations towards improved effectiveness.
Several scholars have attempted to develop new and imaginative management models and theories. Although it is still too early to assess the merits and longevity of their ideas, the work of William Ouchi (theory z Approach), Henry Mintzberg (Managerial Roles Approach), Mckinsey (7-S Approach), Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman (The Excellence Movement), and the Decision Support System etc. Have caught the attention of many managers.
Several scholars have attempted to develop new and imaginative management models and theories.Now let us discuss each of them as under:
A Hybrid Approach: This theory has been developed by William Ouchi. The theory Z approach adapts the elements of effective Japanese Management systems to U.S. culture. The important features to theory Z companies are:
The theory Z approach adapts the elements of effective Japanese Management systems to U.S. Culture.
Z theory based companies believe that the relationship among the workers, managers and other groups are close and cooperative. The central notion is the creation of an industrial team and a stable and cohesive work environment where employee needs for affiliation, independence, and control are met. The first step in this direction is to crate and publicize a humanistic statement of corporate philosophy.
In theory Z. Selected Japanese Managerial practices are adapted to the large companies in the USA. This theory also emphasis’s on the interpersonal skills that are needed for group interaction. Yet despite the emphasis on group decision making responsibility remains with the individual. There is also an emphasis on informal and democratic relationship based on trust.
In theory Z, selected Japanese managerial practices are adapted to the environment of the United States.
Ouchi’s ideas have been well received by practicing managers in different countries and most of the organizations are trying to implement his suggestions. However, due to some criticisms that have been aroused the theory Z is quite likely to be supplanted by more refined and valid models and theories as we begin to learn more about the international domain of management.
Inspire of them theory Z deserves special recognition because it gave early momentum to the development of management theory in the global arena.
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