There are several high level programming languages in use. Following computer languages are popular and have widespread applications:
List of high level programming languages
- BASIC and Visual Basic (VB)
- C and C++
- PASCAL and Delphi
- HTML etc.
Some other programming languages
- PL/1 (programming Languages/1)
BASIC, QBASIC and Visual Basic: BASIC stand for Beginner’s all purpose symbolic instruction code. It is a comparatively easy language for beginners. Initially BASIC was the commonly used language for microcomputers. It was developed by J.G. Kemeny and Thomas Curtz of Dartmouth college of USA in 1964.
Many different versions of BASIC are in use. Most microcomputers use QBASIC devised by a company Called Microsoft. BASIC Has several advantages over the other computer languages, they are:
- It is easy to learn and use.
- It presents several powerful additional facilities not available in many other languages.
- It is designed for interactive use rather than batch processing mode. The user can correct errors as and when they arise during program execution.
The language is easily adaptable on all computers. BASIC is easy and suitable for non-professionals.
Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) is a widely used program development package. It is by far the most successful rapid application development (RAD) tool for Microsoft Windows applications.
VB enables a programmer doesn’t have to worry about any of the code that generates the user interface; it is handled automatically by the VB compiler, which creates an executable program capable of running on its own. Using VB, even a novice programmer can develop an impressive application.
A huge variety of accessory tools enable VB programmers to quickly accomplish tasks as building interfaces to databases and increasing the functionality of Web page.
VB script: It is a scripting language based on VB. It was created for writing scripts (short program) that can be embedded in Web pages.
C and C++: Dennis Ritchie, a programmer at AT&T Bell Laboratories in USA designed the C language in the mid 1970s. C allows a programmer to write code with low-level access to the hardware but with high-level structured programming concept. C is a popular language.
C proved suitable for writing programs that had previously been written exclusively in assembly languages. AT &T UNIX operating system system was written in C. The language is portable to microcomputers. Most PC applications and system programs are written in C.
A more recent version of C is C++, which incorporates object oriented features, but does not force programmers to adhere to the object oriented model. Thus, it provides flexibility and the high execution speed. The C++ language is in widespread use for professional program development. Software giant Microsoft Corporation uses C++ for application development.
FORTRAN: FORTRAN stands for formula translation. It was the first programming language developed by IBM in 1957. It has been modified many times and the later versions were given the name like FORTRAN II and FORTRAN IV, the most popular version which was developed in 1966.
Latest additions are FORTRAN 77 and FORTRAN 90. FORTRAN syntax is very rigid. It is popular in engineering and scientific calculations.
Pascal and Delphi: Pascal is popular on small computers. Pascal was designed and developed by Nicholas Whirth to teach computer programming to students. It belongs to ALGOL family. A pascal program consists of nested blocks for structured programming.
Like most older programming languages, pascal has been updated to reflect new approaches to programming. An object oriented version of Pascal provides the foundation for Delphi, a complier created by Borland International that closely resembles Visual Basic.
COBOL: It stands for common Business Oriented Language. It is Popular business language for data processing. It was designed in late 1960s with a view to provide a common language for business applications. COBOL is independent of any specific computer system, and thus a program written in the language can be transferred to another computer with marginal changes only.
COBRA: it stands for common Object Request Broker Architecture, most commonly known as middleware. CORBA defines how objects can communicate with each other across a network, even if the objects are written in dissimilar programming languages.
Microsoft corporation has its own standard, called component object Model (COM), which works best in Windows platform.
Smalltalk: Developed in the early 1970s at Xerox Corporation. Smalltalk is considered as 100 percent pure object oriented programming language.
Although the language in not often chosen for professional software development, more than a few corporations have chosen smalltalk for mission-critical applications. However, Smalltalk is facing stiff competition from the newest object oriented languages on the scene, Java.
Java: It is one of the most powerful and relatively new programming languages. It is an object oriented programming language, created by sun Micro-systems, is revolutionizing the programming applications for the world wide web (WWW) and corporate intranets and extranets.
Java is similar to the C++ and is much simpler, secure and platform independent programming language. Java is also specifically designed for real-time, interactive, Web-based network applications. Java applications consisting of small application programs, called applets, can be executed by any computer and any operating system any where in a network.
The ease of creating Java applets and distributing them form network servers to client PCs and network computers is a major reason for Java’s popularity. Applets can be small special-purpose application programs or small modules of larger application programs.
Applets can reside at Web sites on a network, intranet or extranets. Applets are platform independent too- they can run on Windows, OS/2, UNIX and Macintosh systems without modifications.
HTML: It stands for HyperText Karkup Language, It is a page description language that creates hypertext or hypermedia documents. HTML inserts control codes within a document at points that create link (known as hyperlink) to other parts of the documents or to other documents anywhere on the WWW.
HTML embeds control codes in the ASCII text of a document that designate titles, headings, graphics, and multimedia components, as well as hyperlinks within the document. Several programs in the top software suites automatically convert documents into HTML formats.
These include Web browsers, word processing and spreasdsheet programs, database managers, and presentation graphics packages. These and other specialized HTML editor programs provide a range of features to design and create multimedia Web page without formal HTML programming.
Some other High Level Programming Languages
ALGOL: it is a short name for Algorithmic language. Originally developed in 1958, it is a more perdition language than FORTRAN for scientific numeric calculations.
Forth: It is a powerful language designed only for fourth generation computers. It is useful in home computing.
RPG: RPG stands for report Program generator. It is a commercial language specially developed for reporting.
ADA: this language was designed by U.S. defense department for its real-time applications and is also suitable for parallel processing.
PL/1 (programming Languages/1): this language combines the features of both COBOL and FORTRAN and can be used for scientific as well as business applications. It was introduced in the late 1960s by IBM. Its application in limited to only IBM computers.
Snobol: It was developed in 1962. It is quite different from languages in the sense that it can be used for processing messages, patterns and strings.
LISP: LISP stands for list processor. It is an artificial intelligence programming language.
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