A computer does not have a brain like ours and it cannot do anything by itself. A computer cannot understand human languages, so an instruction for a task has to be told in a special computer language. So, let’s know about the generation of computer programming languages.
One can give an instruction to a computer which is to be carried out over and over again or at a later time. From the beginning computer programming change at any time. How the generation of computer programming languages changes gradually we will mention about that.
A set of instructions written in a computer language is called a program. Writing a program is called programming and the languages used are called programming languages. A program can be stored on a disk so that it is available to be run when required.
Inside the computer, operations are done using electronic pulses. A special program translates instructions into electronic pulses that the computer can understand.
In a program, the instructions contain special words and symbols and the order of the words is very important. The pattern of electronic pulses for instruction is called machine code.
One could write instructions directly in machine code, but it is very difficult. In assembly language, instructions directly in machine code, but it is very difficult. In assembly language, instructions are given by short forms, called mnemonics.
High-level languages are much easier to understand than assembler mnemonic or machine code. Instructions for a program written in high-level languages are translated by computers, in machine language with the help of the compilers before execution.
Programming languages can be classified on the basis of generations. These areas follow:
Generation of computer programming languages
- First-generation (1GL): Machine languages (based on 0 and 1)
- Second-generation languages (2GL): Assembly languages (based on special code)
- Third generation (3GL): High-level languages (similar to the English language, e.g., BASIC, C, etc)
- Fourth-generation language (4GL): Non-procedural languages.
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