Important mineral deposits in Bangladesh such as gas, coal, oil etc. Let’s know detail about this minerals. Geologically, Bangladesh is formed from:
- Tertiary folded sedimentary rocks in the north, north-eastern and eastern parts;
- Uplifted Pleistocene in the northwestern, mid-northern and eastern parts
- Holocene deposits consisting of sand silt and clay.
Formed as a result of this geological environment, important mineral deposits in Bangladesh include:
- Natural gas
- White/china clay
- Glass/silica sand
The oil and natural gas reserves are to be found in sandstone reservoirs where they have accumulated after rising up through many kilometers of rock layers.
Glass (or silica) send is found in the Holocene sediments, while white (or China) clay is to be found in the later Pleistocene sediments in small hills in the northern parts of Bangladesh.
Resource Skills Activities
Look at a map showing mineral resources in Bangladesh-for example, page 34 of Graphosman world Atlas.
- Describe the distribution of each of the minerals listed on the map.
- Locate and name the following:
- One oil field
- Two gas fields
- Two coal fields
a location for each of limestone, china clay, and glass sand deposit.
Natural gas and oil
There are 22 gas fields that have been discovered in the country. They are mainly found in the eastern part of the country and offshore in the Bay of Bengal. Currently, natural gas accounts for more than 70% of the total commercial energy consumption of Bangladesh, and it is hoped that much of the future energy demand will also be satisfied from this resource.
There is, however, some concern over what will happen when this non-renewable resource runs out.
The only known oil field in the country was discovered in Haripur in north-eastern Bangladesh in 1986, and it has still not been fully evaluated. Oil is chiefly used for providing energy for the country. Petrobangla is the only national oil extraction company in the country. And it is working with a number of international companies to develop the field.
Coal is a black or very dark brown mineral substance formed from the compaction of ancient plant matter in tropical swamp conditions. It is used as a fuel and in the chemical industry. All coalfields so far discovered in Bangladesh are to be found in the northwest of the country, in Jamalganj, Barapukuria, Khalspir, Dighipara, and Phulbari.
Coal is also sometimes imported from India, China, and Indonesia and is chiefly used in Brickfields and in small industries to provide energy.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, consisting chiefly of calcium carbonate. It is the main raw material for the cement industry and is used for construction purposes. It is also used in the preparation of paper, steel, sugar, glass, and lime.
Limestone is found at or near the surface as well as under the ground. Surface (or near-surface) limestone deposits are found near St. Martin’s island off Cox’s Bazaar district and also in Sunamganj district.
Subsurface deposits are found n Joypurhat district. The total reserves at Joypurhat alone have been estimated to be around a 100 million tons.
Lime (calcium oxide) is used for agricultural purposes. It contains carbonates, oxides and/or hydroxides of calcium. It is added to acidic soil to raise the pH value—i.e. to neutralize the soil acidity. In Bangladesh, living is not a common practice but is carried out to improve tea-growing soil where the pH becomes too low.
White or china clay
There are surface (or near-surface) deposits of this mineral in the districts o Netrokona, Sherpur, and Chittagong. There are also a few sub-surface deposits in some parts of Dinajpur and Naogaon. However, the surface clay is not of a very good quality.
It is used in the ceramic industry in the country only after it is mixed with a high-quality imported clay.
Glass sand is a special type of sand that is suitable for glass-making because of its high silica content and its low content of iron oxide, chromium, cobalt and other colorants. Glass sand in Bangladesh consists of fine to medium and yellow to gray quartz.
Like limestone and clay, it is found at or near the surface as well as under the ground. Surface (or near-surface) reserves are found in the districts of Sherpur, Habiganj, Comilla, and Chittagong. Sub-surface reserves are found in Dinajpur and Rangpur.
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