Indira Gandhi was the first female prime minister of India. Indira Gandhi’s biography is mention below.
Some basic information about Indira Gandhi
- Full Name: Indira Priyadarshini Nehru
- Father: Jawaharlal Nehru
- Mother: Kamala Nehru
- Born: 19 November 1917
- Birth Place: Allahabad, United Provinces, British India (now in Uttar Pradesh, India)
- Occupation: Politician
- Cause of death: Assassination
- Political party: Indian National Congress and Congress
- Spouse(s): Feroze Gandhi, (m. 1942; d. 1960)
- Children: Rajiv Gandhi, Sanjay Gandhi
- Awards: Bharat Ratna (1971)
- Died: 31 October 1984 (aged 66) New Delhi, India
Indira Gandhi biography
Indira Gandhi, born on Nov. 19, 1917, and died on Oct. 31, 1984, became India’s first woman prime minister in 1966. The only child of Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, she married Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma), a lawyer who died in 1960. She was made the president of the ruling Indian National Congress party in 1959. After her father’s death in 1964, Mrs. Gandhi became minister of information and broadcasting, and she succeeded Lal Bahadur Shastri was prime minister in 1966. After India’s decisive victory over Pakistan in 1971, she won (1971) an overwhelming electoral victory.
Mrs. Gandhi, however, was accused by her opponent of violating election law-a charge upheld by a high court in June 1975–and her position as prime minister was threatened. These developments and growing domestic unrest led her to declare June 1975) a state of emergency.
She postponed elections from 1976 to 1977, suspended civil liberties, and arrested thousands of political opponents. During the period of emergency rule, she pursued programs of social reform, economic planning, and forced birth control.
In the March 1977 elections, her Congress party suffered a sweeping defeat at the hands of the opposition Janata (People’s) party, an uncongenial coalition of six different groups, headed by her long time challenger Morarji Desai. Gandhi lost her own seat along with the premiership.
In 1978 she returned to Parliament as head of a Congress party faction. She was found guilty of contempt of Parliament in 1978. Nonetheless, she and the Congress party won an overwhelming electoral victory in1980.
In 1980 Gandhi’s younger son, Sanjay, who had come to wield enormous political power as his mother’s chief confidant and advisor, was killed in a plane crash. Turning her emphasis to foreign-policy initiatives, she signed (1980) a joint declaration with the Soviet Union but after that sought closer ties with the West–signified by her visit to the United States in the summer of 1982, which brought about a settlement of an atomic fuel dispute.
In September 1982 she visited the USSR. Early in 1983 Gandhi’s entire cabinet and council of ministers resigned following the Congress Party’s loss of two southern states, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, controlled by the party since 1947. Massive, sometimes violent, demonstrations continued in Punjab state, where Sikh nationalists pushed for greater autonomy.
During elections in the state of Assam about 3,000 people died when Assamese Hindus, who had called for a boycott of the state elections, began rioting to prevent primarily Muslim Bangladesh immigrants from voting. Gandhi was also beset by problems from within her own family as her daughter-in-law Maneka, widow of Sanjay, announced in March 1983 that she had formed an opposition party and would oppose Gandhi’s other son and heir apparent, Rajiv.
In New Delhi, also in March 1983, Gandhi hosted a summit conference of 101 Third-World nations and organizations belonging to the nonaligned movement. The summit marked some return to moderation by the movement, a change credited mainly to Gandhi’s influence.
In June 1984 she ordered the invasion of the Ģolden Temple at Amritsar by Indian troops to quell Sikh extremists headquartered there. Later that year she was assassinated.
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