Job satisfaction is the key to achieving organizations goal. There are various factors which are related to job satisfaction. These job satisfaction factors may be classified into two groups and they are:
Job satisfaction factors
- Characteristics of the individual, and
- Characteristics of the job.
1. Characteristics of the Individual
This is one of the most important job satisfaction factors which affect the job satisfaction of worker:
- Individual Differences: Individual difference make the study of job- satisfaction complicated because each one is a deterrent in his habits, attitudes, nature, etc., so each one differs in his perception about self, his job, and the organization lie works for. A person may be fully satisfied with his job and the organization while others may be fully dissatisfied, some others may be quite indifferent in the similar work environment.
- Age: There is a difference of opinions that there is any correlation between two variables. Mr. Herzberg has established and an important correlation between age and job satisfaction.
According to Mr. Herzberg: In the early years of his employment, the morale of the youth is high and it decreases after sometime some other researches show that taking into account the occupational level constant, that there is generally a positive correlation between age and job satisfaction up to the age of early sixties and then there is a sharp decrease. On the other hand, there are studies that show no relationship between age and job-satisfaction.
- Educational level and intelligence: There is a relatively constant trend of evidence which indicates that with occupational level held constant, there is a negative relationship between educational level and job satisfaction particularly his pay satisfaction has established no relationship between these two variables. It is very difficult to find out the reasons for the difference in the outcome of the various studies because these researchers are based on the theoretical framework.
- Sex: Hulin and Smith (1964) established no relationship between sex and job-satisfaction. But it is a group of variables relating to sex such as pay, promotional avenues and occupational level etc. Which concerns the job- satisfaction? One of the studies. In this subject revealed that women workers are more satisfied with their job than men in spite of the fact that men and women were getting the same pay and status.
2. Characteristics of the Job
There are different job characteristics that are related to job satisfaction and also work as job satisfaction factors. These characteristics are:
- Occupational Level: The general conclusion of various studies shows that the higher the level of job, the greater the job satisfaction: Various needs are being satisfied at different levels of the job. Guring, Verofi, and Feld (1960) found that men of high status have more ego-satisfaction than men at the low status in the organization. Porter 91962) established that higher-level jobs satisfy the ego of the person because they get high status and more pay. It happens due to over social system. We, in society, value some jobs higher than others hence people like such highly valued jobs in, comparison to a lower-level job and they themselves more satisfied as soon as getting it.
- Job-contents: Various researchers (Wyatt, Fraser, and Stock 1929, Baldamus 1951, Walker and Guest 1952, Mann and Hoffman 1960, and Hackman 1974) indicate that the greater the variation in job content, the greater the satisfaction of the individuals involved. The study made by Walker and Guest 1952 in an automobile assembly plant found that jobs that invoked fine or more distinct operations, 69◦j◦ of the workers, working on the operations had favorable job failings and only 33% of workers engaged on single operation job liked their job.
- Considerate Leadership: There are a large number of research studies that point out to the conclusion the considerate leadership results in higher job satisfaction than inconsiderate leadership. Although different studies used the different instruments of measurements. Procedure etc., yet the trend of their findings are almost consistent. Suppressor behavior and the position be held or the social status of the supervisor and the feelings among subordinate for him are some of the considerations that affect the satisfaction of the jobs. If, suppose, supervisors or any superiors cooperate with their subordinates, the subordinates will be more satisfied and if their inconsiderate decisions harm the subordinate or they lack leadership qualities. The subordinates will fill themselves dissatisfied.
- Pay and Promotion Opportunities: These two variables and positively related to job satisfaction. That is both of these variables tied up with occupational level and social prestige. In addition, each of these variables also has the capacity to fulfill an increasing number of needs. If there are promotional avenues open in a particular job the person concerned will feel satisfied because promotional avenues are important considerations in job satisfaction. A person wills fell dissatisfied if there is no promoting or if the job lacks promotional avenues. Though a promotional opportunity is closely related to the birth but seniority is also considered.
- Interaction of people with others or groups may result in job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. If the interaction is unsatisfying a person may withdraw himself in case of the voluntary group but it is not always possible in an organizational group to withdraw and the result is frustrating and the more the interaction, the more the frustration. The interaction is more satisfying if others behavior in the group is similar to his own and others recognized him or when interaction facilitates him in the achievement of goals.
- Security of job: Security of job is an important factor in determining the job satisfaction. Job security is an important consideration on a lower level or unskilled jobs while it is secondary to a higher level of technical or skilled jobs.
- Intrinsic Aspects of the job: The intrinsic value of job differs from man to man, so job-satisfaction also differs. A person dissatisfied with his job because he is specially trained for that job and has the capability of performing it well, the other prefers that job only because, he gets recognition in the group or society. The others may be interested in the job because it is easy to perform. Whatsoever may be the reason for accepting the job. They may tell him satisfied or dissatisfied with the job due to a number of reasons. A more skilled worker may feel dissatisfied if there are low job requirements.
- Working Conditions: If working conditions on the job in the organization are better in comparison to similar jobs in other organizations, the workers will be more satisfied. If these are worse, they will feel dissatisfied.
The above factors are concerned with the job-satisfaction but not in the same order in which they are given: The significance of a factor depends on nature of man and the situations of the case.
Wages may be an important factor for one while others may fell promotional avenues more important. Some others may prefer job security and its social values in feeling themselves satisfied.
Related Content of Job Satisfaction:
- What is the Definition of Job Satisfaction?
- Levels of Job Satisfaction
- Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Productivity
- Benefits / Advantages of Job Satisfaction Studies
- Different Types of Job Satisfaction Surveys
- Different Types of Survey Questions which are Mostly used in Survey
- Uses of Survey Information getting from Job Satisfaction Survey