Population structure is the most important fact for a country because it gives a clear cut idea about the population of a country. As well as it helps to take further steps to prevent it. Here we mention the population structure of Bangladesh.
Population structure of Bangladesh
Demography: Demography is the branch of knowledge that deals with human populations, especially the statistical analysis of births, deaths, migrations, disease, etc, in order to illustrate the conditions of life in communities.
Birth rate: The birth rate is the average number of births during a year per 1000 people in the population estimated at mid-year. It is commonly identified as the crude birth rate. It is the dominant factor in establishing the rate of population growth in a country and is determined by the level of fertility as well as the age structure of the population.
In Bangladesh, the birth rate was 31.4 per thousand in 1992; it fell to around 25.2 per thousand in 2002 and is expected to fall to around 18 per thousand in 2020.
Death rate: The death rate is the average number of deaths per 1000 people in the population estimated at mid-year. It is an approximate reflection of the mortality situation and is referred to as the crude death rate. It indicates the impact of the existing death rate on population growth given the age distribution of the population.
In Bangladesh, the death rate was 11.2 per thousand in 1992, it fell to 8.9 per thousand in 2002 and is projected to fall further to around 8 per thousand in 2020.
In statistics such as those produced by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics:
Infant mortality: Infant mortality is the number of infants dying between day 1 and the age of one year, expressed per 1000 live births.
In Bangladesh, the infant mortality rate (per thousand) reduced from 88.0 in 1992 to 64.9 in 2002. It is projected to decline to 40.1 by the year 2025.
Life expectancy: Life expectancy is the number of years that an average person is expected to live as determined by the mortality rate. In Bangladesh, life expectancy at birth was 56.3 years in 1992 and increased significantly to 62 years by 2002. It is currently very close to the life expectancy observed in Pakistan and India. Where the life expectancy in 2002 was 64 and 63 years respectively.
The natural increase in population: The natural increase in populating is defined as the rate at which a population cohort is increasing or decreasing in any given year. It is the difference between the birth rate and death rate, expressed as a percentage of the base population.
In Bangladesh, the rate of natural increase of the population was 2.02% in 1992. It fell to 1.63% in 2002. It is expected to further decline to 1.07% by the year 2020.
The dependency ratio: The dependency ratio is the proportion of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part (aged 15 to 64 years). It gave an estimate of the share of dependents that the economically active population has to support.
The dependency ratio in Bangladesh has fallen from 85.4 in 1992 to 64.9 in 2000. It is projected to further decline to around 44.6 in 2025. This reflects the growing number of people in the 15-64 age groups as a result of high birth rates in the past. The large numbers who were born in the 1960s to the 1980s are now becoming economically active and as a result, the dependency ratio is falling.
For the time being, therefore, Bangladesh is in a fortunate position because the economically active population has a relatively small number of dependents to support.
We can expect more success in raising the savings and investment ratio (needs explanation) in the coming few decades if government policies and institutions are appropriate.
Total Fertility Rate: The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is the projected average number of children born to each woman over the course of her life. It measures the total number of children a woman will bear in her lifetime on the assumption that the current level of fertility continues.
Given average mortality rates, a TFR of 2.1 roughly indicates that a woman will be replaced by her daughter once her child-bearing period ends. This is referred to as the replacement level fertility.
Resource Skills Activities
- Draw line graphs to show the changes from 1992 onwards in:
- Birth rate
- Death rate
- Infant mortality
- Life expectancy
- The natural increase in population
- Dependency ratio
A profile of the population structure in Bangladesh: The present population of the country is around 130 million. Even though the annual rate of growth has fallen from around 3.1% in 1971 to the current level of 1.6%, it is projected that stabilization will not occur until approximately the year 2050 when the population may be as large as 250 million.
Stabilization refers to the population size that will remain constant given the birth and death rates, and the age distribution of the population.
Sex: The share of males and females in the total population is nearly equal, with the males slightly ahead. In 1990, the total male population was 55.7 million whilst that of females was 52.6 million. This is projected to increase to 91 million males and 88.6 females in 2025. The slightly higher ratio of males to females may indicate a bias against women’s access to nutrition and healthcare.
If access to nutrition and healthcare was equal, we would expect to see a slightly higher than the equal ratio of women to men in the population given that the average lifespan of women is higher than the equal ratio of women to men in the population given that the average lifespan of women is higher than that of men in developed countries.
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