Job Characteristics Model According to Hackman and Oldham

Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model proposed that the relationship between core job characteristics and psychological states is moderated by an individual’s growth need and strength.

Similarly, the relationship between the psychological state and personal and work outcome is moderated by growth needs strength. Hackman and Oldham’s job characteristics model is summarized below:

Job characteristics model Hackman and Oldham

Hackman and Oldham's Job Characteristics Model
Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model

Hackman and Oldham’s model is divided into three parts. These are:

  1. Core job characteristics
  2. Critical psychological states and
  3. Personal and work outcomes.

Core job characteristics include five aspects i.e. task identity, task significance, skill variety, autonomy, and feedback. Critical psychological states encompass four elements. Finally personal and work outcomes include four factors.

If all these aspects work positively and in accordance with the organizational policies hoping the organization can achieve its purposes in time. The above model is based on a research study. Due to the expiry of time and change of place sort limitations may limit the application of the model.

A. Core Job Characteristics

There are five core job characteristics in an organization. The five core job characteristics are discussed below:

1. Task Identity: Seeing a whole piece of work. Employees can complete a task from beginning to end with an identifiable outcome.

2. Task Significant: Importance of the job. The characteristic is determined by the impact the employee’s work has on others within or outside the organization.

3. Skill Variety: The degree to which employees are able to do a number of different tasks using many different skills, abilities, and talents determines the skill variety.

4. Autonomy: The degree to which employees have control over their work.

5. Feedback: The degree to which the job offers information to the employee regarding performance and work outcome.

B. The Critical Psychological States

The three psychological states are defined in the following terms:

1. Experienced meaningfulness: The degree to which employees perceive the work as being meaningful, valuable, and worthwhile.

2. Responsibility: The degree to which employees feel accountable and responsible for the outcomes of their work.

3. Knowledge of result: The degree to which employees know and understand how well they are performing on the job.

C. Personal and work outcomes

Form types of personal and work-related outcomes may be achieved on the basis of job characteristics and psychological support. These are as follows:

1. High internal motivation: Employees work more and with joy.

2. High satisfaction: They get satisfied with their jobs following the fulfillment of needs.

3. High work quality: Employees perform their duties by producing high-quality goods & services.

4. Low absenteeism and turnover: If core job features and psychological states behave positively, workers show low absenteeism and turnover also.

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