A good number of models of planned change in organizations have been designed by several scholars. In some cases some variables are common. Some are different, for a particular time.
Every model has values and significance. Change models are approaches, which can give an idea about the process of change. Model is the framework of some variables to be applied by the organization.
Model is a structure of organizational activities to be performed in the future. A few models, however, are available in the following list:
Name of the model
Three Stage Model
Seven Stage Model
Ronald Lippitt and Associates
Burk Litwin Model
Warner Burk and Litwin
Porras Robertson Model
Jerry Porras and Peter Robertson
All these Models have been discussed in the following pages with diagrams:
Table of Contents
Three Stage Models of planned change by Kurt Lewin
This model of change has been divided by Kurt Lewin in the 1940s. In this model three stages are suggested to follow:
Stage 1: Unfreezing: creating confirmation and readiness to change through
- Dis confirmation or lack of confirmation
- Creation of guilt or anxiety
- Psychological safety
Stage 2: Changing through cognitive restructuring: Helping the client to see things, judge things, feel things, and react to things differently based on new points of view obtained through
- Identifying with a new role model mentor etc.
- Scanning environment for new relevant information.
Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into
- The total personality and self-concept
- Significant relationship.
If these three stages are followed one by one, we hope that the change process will be completed successfully.
Seven Stage Models of planned change by Ronald Lippitt and Associates
This model has been proposed by Ronald Lippit, Jeanne, Watson, and Bruce Westley, This model is the expanded version of-3 the stage model of K.Lewin, and these seven stages are given below.
Phase-1: Developing need: At this stage planners should develop a need for change.
Phase-2: Change relationship: In this phase, a working relationship between the client and the outside agent needs to be established.
Phase-3: Clarification: Then clarification or diagnosis of client systems is to be made properly.
Phase-4: Alternative routes: Some alternative routes and goals are to be selected and then necessary actions are to be taken.
Phase-5: Transformation: At this stage, the intention is to be transformed into actual change.
Phase-6: Generalizing: AT this stage of this model change is supposed to be generalized and stabilized.
Phase-7: Terminal Relationship: In the last stage of this model; the relationship between client and consultant is terminated.
According to the above scholars, with the completion of all several phases, change can take place effectively.
Models of planned change by Warner Burk and Litwin
These two scholars have designed two order changes, first-order change, and second-order change. In the first-order change model, eight transaction factors have been identified. These factors are:
- Management practice
- Work unit climate
- Individual needs and values
- Task requirements and individuals skills
- Individual and organizational performance
According to this model, if all eight factors help each other, a successful change may be made in the organization. Lack of cooperation from any factor can destroy the change efforts. The management factor is one of the most important factors in this regard.
Not only that, the work unit climate cannot be ignored. At the same time motivation of employees as well as change, agents are supposed to consider. Of course, individual needs and aspirations can intensify the level of motivation.
Of course, individual needs and aspirations can intensify the level of motivation. In Bangladesh, if we can ensure the presence of all these factors, any sort of change can be implemented. However, the model is shown in the following figure:
In second-order change, Burker-Kitwin has given five transformational factors.
- External environment
- Organizational culture
- Mission and strategy
- Individual and organizational performance.
In the following figure, transformational factors are shown with interrelationships between structure, management practices, work unit climate, task requirements, individual needs, and values. These interrelated factors can contribute to better individual and organizational performance.
According to this model, if the first four factors act with interrelationships, then the last objective, i.e. individual and organizational performance may be achieved.
By combining these two order change models, Burke-Litwinhas again designed a very complex model. This model incorporates thirteen stages along with one new step feedback. The models are shown in the following diagram.
It is directly linked to the external environment. According to this model, a complex relationship has been established. If an organization can maintain this relationship and manage everything properly, a change program may be implemented.
Models of planned change according to Jerry Porras and Peter Robertson
Jerry Porras and Peter Robertson have proposed another model of planned change. This model has six basic steps. These are
- The vision of the organization,
- Organizing arrangements,
- Social factors,
- Physical setting
A favorable environment encourages management to set its vision. IN compliance with the vision management then select these components for further action. The last four components have again been divided into a few sub-factors which are shown in the following diagram.
According to this model, organizing arrangements incorporate seven factors, social factors include five aspects, physical setting involves four elements and technology covers seven items. If all these factors behave positively, we hope planned change may be implemented successfully.
In Bangladesh, very often the environment does not permit, organizational arrangements are unorganized, physical settings are not sufficient and technology is not adaptable which hamper the achievement of organizational vision.
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