Two types of training and development programs are usually adopted by business and industrial organizations. Almost in all books, authors have discussed these two methods.
Types of training and development
- On-the-job training and
- Off-the-job training
The first program is conducted within the organization and work. While the off-the-job training program is conducted outside the organization. In the following figure, both programs are shown:
From the figure below, it is seen that for the success of the job methods job meetings, job rotations, staff development meetings, problem-solving conferences, mentoring special organizations, and apprenticeships are used.
On the other hand, outside short courses & seminars, college/university programs, advanced management programs correspondence programs, and outside meetings and conferences are arranged under the job T & D methods.
On-the-job training provides a person with the skills to do. A minimum level on the job, but it can and do much more than that. A number of techniques can be employed to provide OJT,
1. Job duties: Assignment, and responsibilities of an individual both horizontally and vertically in the organization. Opportunities are created for the individual in his or her present job to practice higher-level and inverse skills not normally required in the pre-job.
2. Job rotation: Also called cress training. This involves moving individuals to various types of jobs within the organization at the same level or the next immediate higher level for periods of time. This rotation may be for as short as an hour or two or as long as a year.
3. Staff development meetings: Discuss facets of each individual’s job and ways to develop ideas for improving job performance. These meetings may be held away from the job in a “retreat-type” atmosphere
4. Problem-solving conferences: Conferences are called to solve a specific problem being experienced by a group or the org as a whole It involves brainstorming and other creative means to come up with mutually solutions determined to basic problems.
5. Mentoring: Mentoring assigns a guide or knowledgeable person from higher-ups in the organization to help a new employee “learn the ropes” of the organization land to provide other advice usually a social.
A relationship is developed so that the employee feels that she or he can go to the mentor for advice that cannot be asked of the immediate superior. Mentoring is most common for young executives.
6. Special assignment: Special assignment is special tasks or responsibilities given to an individual for a specified period of time.
The assignment may be writing a report; investigating the feasibility for a new project, process, service, or product: preparing a newsletter: or evaluating a company policy or procedure.
7. Apprenticeships: This refers to the training provided by working under an experienced worker or master in a craft. The apprentice works alongside a person skilled in the craft and is taught by that person. This often occurs on the job, and it sometimes is done in off-the-job settings.
An effective training system supplements OJT with various forms of Off-the-job training. Most of this type of training is classroom training. Some of the more frequently used types of training include the following:
1. Outside short courses and seminars: These are specialized courses conducted by educational institutions, professional associations, or private consulting and training firms that last one day to one week.
2. College or University degree certificate programs: Specialized degree and certification programs are offered as evening and weekend classes by a variety of colleges and universities. Often these are in professional fields such as management, accounting, finance, or the law.
3. Advanced management programs: Some universities offer in-residence programs of two weeks to a full year for top management. Often they cover material typically found in an MBA program but at a much-accelerated rate.
4. Correspondence schools: If individuals can practice rigorous self-discipline, home correspondence study can be an excellent self-development tool.
However, an employee needs to ensure that the correspondence school with which he or she deals is reputable.
5. Outside meetings and conferences: Most managers and professionals have opportunities to attend trade and professional conferences and conventions throughout the year.
If participants actually attend the scheduled meetings and workshops at these conferences, they can be excellent learning experiences.
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