Programs usually are clusters of similar practices that focus on specific approaches to participation. One or more can be used in single company.
Some organizational give power to mangers to take their programs in won style. Some are specified. The programs are as follows that are used in Participation:
Programs of Participation
- Consultative management: These types of participation take the consultant opinion about the employee. They no. of opinion is less in number. Management takes decision through consultancy.
- Democratic management: In this type of participation the majority opinion is given preference. The management takes decision in democratic way. The entire employee has a equal opportunity to participate.
- Production committee: The management makes a production committee to increase production. The committee opinion gives the foremost preference. The all responsibility goes to that committee.
- Suggestions program: The employee can make the quality product only. Because only the employee knows how quality can be assured. Employee in liable for that.
- Total quality management: The employee can make the quality product only. Because only the employee knows how quality can be assured. Employee is liable for that.
- Suggestion Programs: Suggestion programs are formal plans to invite individual employees to recommend work improvements. In most companies the employee whose suggestion results in a cost savings may receive a monetary aware in proportion to firs year saving. Although many suggestion programs provide useful ideas, they are a limited form of participation that accents individual initiative instead of group problem solving and teamwork.
- Quality Emphasis: For many years, both union and nonunion firms have organized groups of workers and their mangers into committees to consider and solve job problems. These groups many be called work community. Labor-management committee etc. They have broad usefulness for improving productivity and communications because most of the employee can be involved.
- Self Managing Teams: Some firms have moved beyond limited forms of participation, allowing a number of major decisions to be made by employee groups. These progressive approaches incorporate extensive use of group discussion. Which makes full use of group ideas and group influence?
- Employee ownership Plans: Employees have often urged to buy the product you make, today that slogan has occasionally been replaced with buy the company you work for. Employee ownership of a firm emerges when employees provide the capital to purchase control of an existing operation. The stimulus often comes from threatened closings of marginally profitable plants, where workers see little hope of other employment in a devastated local economy.
Process of participation
A simple model of the participative process is given in figure. It indicates that in many situations participative programs result in both mental, emotional and physical involvement that produces generally favorable outcomes for both the employees and the organization.
Participating employees are generally more satisfied with their work and their supervisor, and their self-efficacy rises as a result to their new-fund empowerment.
Related Content of Employee Participation:
- Advantages of Employee Participation
- Conditions of Participation
- Factors Contributing to Participation in Management
- Important Considerations of Participation
- Role of Management for the Successful Participation Process