Programs usually are clusters of similar practices that focus on specific approaches to participation. One or more can be used in a single company.
Some organizational give power to managers to take their programs in won style. Some are specified. The programs are as follows that are used in Participation:
Programs of Participation
1. Consultative management: These types of participation take the consultant’s opinion about the employee. They no. of opinion is less in number. Management takes decisions through consultancy.
2. Democratic management: In this type of participation the majority opinion is given preference. The management takes decisions in a democratic way. The entire employee has an equal opportunity to participate.
3. Production committee: The management makes a production committee to increase production. The committee opinion gives the foremost preference. All responsibility goes to that committee.
4. Total quality management: The employee can make the quality product only. Because only the employee knows how quality can be assured. The employee is liable for that.
5. Suggestion Programs: Suggestion programs are formal plans to invite individual employees to recommend work improvements. In most companies, the employee whose suggestion results in cost savings may receive a monetary awareness in proportion to first-year saving. Although many suggestion programs provide useful ideas, they are a limited form of participation that accents individual initiative instead of group problem solving and teamwork.
6. Quality Emphasis: For many years, both union and nonunion firms have organized groups of workers and their managers into committees to consider and solve job problems. These groups may be called the work community. Labor-management committee etc. They have broad usefulness for improving productivity and communications because most of the employees can be involved.
7. Self Managing Teams: Some firms have moved beyond limited forms of participation, allowing a number of major decisions to be made by employee groups. These progressive approaches incorporate extensive use of group discussion. Which makes full use of group ideas and group influence?
8. Employee ownership Plans: Employees have often urged to buy the product you make, today that slogan has occasionally been replaced with buying the company you work for. Employee ownership of a firm emerges when employees provide the capital to purchase control of an existing operation. The stimulus often comes from threatened closings of marginally profitable plants, where workers see little hope of other employment in a devastated local economy.
Process of participation
A simple model of the participative process is given in the figure. It indicates that in many situations participative programs result in both mental, emotional, and physical involvement that produces generally favorable outcomes for both the employees and the organization.
Participating employees are generally more satisfied with their work and their supervisor, and their self-efficacy rises as a result of their new-found empowerment.
Related Content of Employee Participation: