There are a few theories of organizational politics. These theories depict the environment, interdependence, goals, scarcity, conflict, cooperation, competition, and so on. A few theories of organizational politics are discussed below:
Pfeffer’s Model of organizational politics
It is also known as Pfeffer’s Theory of organizational politics. Jeffery Pfeffer has proposed this model or theory. The following diagram shows the components of the theory. According to this theory, political activities are seen to be the outcome of several conditions.
When these conditions exist, power and politics result. The environment of the organization imposes demands and constraints that will be accommodated in the form of means and ends. That is by adopting what means an organization gets its activities done and what goals (ends) it achieves.
From the above model, we can see ten elements, all elements of the environment are interrelated. If all elements behave positively, organizational politics may become successful.
Limitations of Pfeffer’s Theory
Every theory may have some limitations. Because the environment is ever-changing conditions may change and the application of theory hampers. A few limitations of this theory are listed below:
Pfeffer’s theory did not consider few other variables of organization. For example, motivation, job satisfaction, etc.
This theory is applicable only in the developed society. In developing and underdeveloped societies this theory cannot achieve organizational goals.
In this theory, heterogeneous goals and beliefs are not directly linked. Whereas the second one can help achieve a heterogeneous goal.
Despite these limitations, this theory may be applied to many organizations. In Bangladesh, the management can adapt this model to apply several times for OD purposes with utmost care and sincerity.
Game Theories of organizational politics
The second theory of organizational politics is Game Theory. Different aspects of this theory were discussed by many scholars. J. Von Neuman and O. Morgenstern are two of them. Cooperation, conflict, competition, pay off matrix, the nature of interdependent relationships, and distributive bargaining have been emphasized in this theory.
These concepts of game theory provide a structure for understanding power and politics. By adopting this model, problems related to wars, strikes, arguments, cooperation, and altruism may be overcome easily.
Limitations of the Game Theory
There are some limitations to the game theory of organizational politics. These limitations are mentioned below:
The area of application of the game theory is not broad. Only in a limited area, benefits of game theory may be accrued.
This theory considers purely competitive, and mixed or mixed-motive environment s only. In addition to these three situations, some other situations are also prevailing in different organizations that have not been considered.
In many organizations, conflict of interest is not that prominent. For example, in private organizations or in sole proprietorship big organizations, this type of conflict is almost absent. This theory does not have any command over this environment.
A theory cannot cover all areas or all organizations. Due to the difference in conditions application of any theory may be insignificant. Notwithstanding, game theory may be accepted in the BD organization. Since politics is a game between different rivals so by knowing this they political efficiency may be gained.
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