There are a few theories of organizational politics. These theories depict the environment, interdependence, goals, scarcity, conflict, cooperation, competition, and so no. A few theories of organizational politics are discussed below:
Pfeffer’s Model of organizational politics
It is also known as Pfeffer’s Theory of organizational politics. Jeffery Pfeffer has proposed this model or theory. The following diagram shows the components of the theory. According to this theory, political activities are seen to be the outcome of several conditions.
When these conditions exist, power and politics result. The environment of the organization imposes demands and constraints that will be accommodated in the form of means and ends. That is by adopting what means an organization gets its activities done and what goals (ends) it achieves.
From the above model, we can see ten elements, all elements of the environment is interrelated. If all elements behave positively, organizational politics may become successful.
Limitations of Pfeffer’s Theory
Every theory may have some limitations. Because environment is ever changing conditions may change and the application of theory hampers. A few limitations of this theory are listed below:
- Pfeffer’s theory did not consider few other variables of organization. For example, motivation, job satisfaction etc.
- This theory is applicable only in the developed society. In the developing and underdeveloped societies this theory cannot achieve organizational goal.
- In this theory, heterogeneous goal and beliefs are not direct by linked. Whereas the second one can help achieve the heterogeneous goal.
Despite these limitations this theory may be applied in many organizations. In Bangladesh the management can adept this model as apply several times for OD purposes with utmost care and sincerity.
Game Theories of organizational politics
The second theory of organizational politics is Game Theory. Different aspects of this theory were discussed by many scholar. J. Von Neuman and O. Morgenstern are two of them. Cooperation, conflict, competition, pay off matrix, the nature of interdependent relationships, and distributive bargaining have been emphasized in this theory.
These concepts of game theory provide a structure for understanding power and politics. By adopting this model, problems related to wars, strikes, arguments, cooperation and altruism may be overcome easily.
Limitations of the Game Theory
There are some limitations of game theory of organizational politics. These limitations are mentioned below:
- Area of application of the game theory is not broad. Only in a limited areas, benefits of game theory may be accrued.
- This theory considers purely competitive, and mixed or mixed motive environment s only. In addition to these three situations, some other situations are also prevailing indifferent organizations which have not been considered.
- In many organizations, conflict of interest is not that much prominent. For example, in private organizations or in sole proprietorship big organizations, this type of conflict is almost absent. This theory does not have any command over this environment.
A theory cannot cover all areas or all organizations. Due to difference of conditions application of any theory may be insignificant. Not with standing, the game theory may be accepted in BD organization. Since politics is a game between different rivals so by knowing this they political efficiency may be gained.
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